Thursday, July 27, 2017

ACADEMIC PAPER -- ''Rethinking Climate Change: Cli-fi Dynamics in Barbara Kingsolver’s Flight Behaviour'' - by Nanthinii M. & Dr. V. Bhuvaneswari in India

TWEET: - ACADEMIC PAPER -- ''Rethinking Climate Change: Cli-fi Dynamics in Barbara Kingsolver’s Flight Behaviour'' - by Nanthinii M. & Dr. V. Bhuvaneswari in India

International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 10, Number 21 (2015) pp 41972-41976
© Research India Publications.
Rethinking Climate Change: Cli-fi Dynamics in Barbara Kingsolver’s Flight Behaviour
Nanthinii M. & Dr. V. Bhuvaneswari
Research Associate, School of Social Sciences and Languages, VIT University, Vellore, India
Associate Professor, School of Social Sciences and Languages, VIT University, Vellore, India

This article seeks to analyze Barbara Kingsolver‟s 2012 cli-fi Flight Behaviour where the author carefully blends the fictional and real world climate change predicaments, beliefs and disbeliefs to elaborate the inundated ecocatastrophes. The novel indelibly provides insights rather than concrete solutions to decipher the crisis. Kingsolver‟s notion of instigating such alternative perceptions would help one redraw or rethink the existing beliefs about climate change and also instills the indispensable need for a symbiotic living between the human and non-human world. Besides, Flight Behaviour with the dynamics of cli-fi, not only probes deep into the ecological concerns of the real world but also sheds light on the mysterious interplay of the natural world and humans‟ conflicted hearts. The article also infers that Kingsolver‟s flight toward emotional responses is nothing but a journey heading from ignorance to certainty.
Keywords: Cli-fi; Ecocriticism; Ecocatastrophe; Ecoconsiousness; Climate change


Human beings in the name of progress, modernization, or industrialization commit end number of irreversible crimes against nature. Having caused so many environmental ills, be it the construction of skyscrapers, or the recently trending small scale real estate business that destroys agrarian lands, or the support for renovating nuclear power plants and atomic power stations, it is quite evident that humans either consciously or unconsciously invite nothing but their own collapse. Posing themselves as the only masters on earth, humans often forget that they share a symbiotic living with the non-human world, and outcast the latter to the edge of society. By marginalizing nature humans only fail to keep in mind that every action has an equal and opposite reaction, and stake their own lives toward catastrophes like climate change, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, and flood (i.e. the environmental crisis). Though initiating a discussion on environmental crises is not like turning back the dead old pages of history, it is equally undeniable that only in the past few decades the need for restoring the harmony between nature and humans are paid heed. The urgency to help revamp these global cataclysms in the 1980s and earlier 1990s gave birth to a vibrant field in literary critical studies called Ecocriticism, an emerging field in contemporary literary and cultural theory that delineates “the relationship between literature and the physical environment” [3] in broader perspectives. It is one of the very few literary conventions that address the need for a bond between humans and nature. The need, as it is presumed, sprouted not just because of its importance or significance, rather it implies the already perturbed equilibrium. Ecocriticism, in this vein, offer insights if not an exact remedy and “seeks to evaluate texts and ideas in terms of their coherence and usefulness as responses to environmental crisis” [13].
Rachel Carson‟s Silent Spring (1962) is one such portrayal of the “nature that „once‟ existed,” [8] and the long gone stability among the living beings on earth. Though inferences of nature have been taken, right from sources like Genesis to Revelation, and also from the most cherished nature writings of Ralph Waldo Emerson or Henry David Thoreau, nature is considered only far from significance until the arrival of some serious works that addresses the environmental issues like Carson‟s Silent Spring. Similar writings by Margaret Atwood, Jeanette Winterson, T. C. Boyle, Cormac McCarthy, and Maggie Gee offer a drastic re-thinking of the effects of environmental crises in fiction. Among the environmental disasters, climate change, a global phenomenon, for example, is considered as one of the “wicked problems (which) afflict open, complex and imperfectly understood systems, and are beyond the range of mere technical knowledge and traditional forms of governance” [12]. Though writers, particularly the science fictionists, have been addressing climate change in their works for a very long time, the way of treating the subject as a mere thematic pretense blurs the vision of the contemporary society. Earlier, works like Jules Verne‟s The Purchase of the North Pole (1889), John Brunner‟s The Sheep Look Up (1972), Kim Stanley Robinson‟s the Three Californias Trilogy (1984-1990), or the then Adam Roberts‟ The Snow (2004) most of which are either science fiction or dystopias that has instigated the debates on climate change. But the epochs in science fiction as far future or ruminations of the past in present diminished the outcomes of the debate only closer to success, and not to the closest. But after Dan Bloom‟s coining of the term „cli-fi‟ in 2007, as a pun to „sci-fi,‟ climate fiction became a separate genre for climate change novels. Since then, right from employing environmental themes to utmost scientific contemplations, cli-fi has come forward as a conventional genre, and with the major contributions from writers like Ursula K. Le Guin‟s The New Atlantis (1975), Margaret Atwood‟s trilogy Oryx and Crake (2003); The Year of Flood (2009); Maddaddam (2013), Liz Jensen‟s The Rupture (2009), Paolo Bacigalupi‟s The Windup
International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 10, Number 21 (2015) pp 41972-41976
© Research India Publications.
Girl (2009), Ian McEwan‟s Solar (2010), Barbara Kingsolver‟s Flight Behaviour (2012), and Nathaniel Rich‟s Odds Against Tomorrow (2013) to the genre marked the advent of climate fiction in contemporary literature. Ban Ki-moon, the United Nations Secretary-General, in his Opening Speech at the 2007 Bali Conference on Climate Change endorsed the inevitability of climate change in the existing state of affairs. He has proclaimed that “climate change is the defining challenge of our age…. The science is clear. Climate change is happening. The impact is real. The time to act is now” [1]. Vindicating Ban Ki-moon‟s claims, Cli-fi helps open up potential issues of climate change, and in addition to that, an ecocritical approach towards climate change in a work of art, urge human beings to rethink or reconstruct their fundamental beliefs pertaining to one‟s culture, “psychological, spiritual and ethical work(s) that climate change can do (or) is doing for us” [12].


Cli-fi often confused as a sub-genre of speculative or science fiction takes its stand as an individual genre for its highly elevated climate change concerns, and narrative structures. Contrary to sci-fi or speculative fiction which deals with space ships or interstellar travels, cli-fi is constructed in a way that it helps broaden our understanding of the world we live in and the possible future on Earth itself. Unlike sci-fi, climate fiction pose the threats of real world, warns for its impact on human beings, but does not choose to employ any alien or humanoid in a distant fictional planet. In a nutshell, the distinction between cli-fi and sci-fi can be hypothesized as: “no more clocks that strike 13 and starships to Mars. We need to save the earth first” [4]. Barbara Kingsolver‟s Flight Behaviour is a clarion call for the forestalled eco-apocalypse, climate change, where Kingsolver voices the need for a consciousness towards the preservation of natural world. Kingsolver is a writer whose careful blend of science and creativity blatantly documents how human beings welcome their own devastation by causing continuous threats to the natural world. Barbara Kingsolver a contemporary American novelist, short story writer, poet, and essayist is well renowned for her socially committed literary creations. Having penned seven novels The Bean Trees (1988), Animal Dreams (1990), Pigs in Heaven (1993), The Poisonwood Bible (1998), Prodigal Summer (2000), The Lacuna (2009), and Flight Behaviour (2012) Kingsolver has also authored two nonfiction works: Holding the Line: Women in the Great Arizona Mine Strike of 1983 (1989), and Animal, Vegetable, Miracle (2007). In addition to this, she has composed a poetry collection named Another America/Otra America (1993), three essay collections: High Tide in Tucson (1995), Small Wonder (2002), and Last Stand: America’s Virgin Lands (2002), and a short story collection: Homeland and Other Stories (1989). Flight Behaviour foregrounds climate change to discuss humans‟ ruthless exploit of the non-human via deforestation, global warming, and the extinction of coral reefs, animal and insect habitats. The novel also stresses on the need for a reconstructed harmony between the human and non-human world so as to reinstate the synergy on earth. Though climate change is commonly found as a thematic aspect of the novel, Kingsolver‟s painstaking efforts convey the inherent message of how nature is suppressed, and out casted by human beings for their own benefits. The novel also have in it multifarious themes like identity, communication, class, poverty, community, and religion.
Flight Behaviour is Kingsolver‟s exemplar creation that embodies her unique way of converting experiences into insights, i.e. science through fiction. Flight Behaviour dares to tear the lagging climate convictions in both real and fictional worlds. It is quite an agreeable factor that the recent methodologies imposed by the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change (IPCC) to enforce climate change mitigation or adaptation is quite beyond the level of an ordinary human being‟s comprehension for they are often considered either as not understandable or politicized. Cli-fi parallels the climate change ironies of the real life in a fictional set up, and through its fictional characters expresses the voices of scientists or climate activists. According to Judith Curry, introducing climate change into fiction “is an untapped way of… smuggling some serious topics into (the readers‟) consciousness” [9] and having introduced, an author dares to get acquainted with both the cognitive and affective behaviours of a reader – which is unlikely of the scientists in real world. Like her previous novels, Kingsolver in Flight Behaviour opens her forum with an array of questions so much like that of those from a scientist. The novel asks: How do we make our choices? Why is it tough to initiate a talk about climate change? What is worth believing when it comes to climate change? And why does the belief about climate change vary from one another? Kingsolver aims to focus on these possible choices an individual can make, and relates it to the change that an individual could spread to a community through the choices he/she makes. Kingsolver‟s way of offering insights, but not a particular solution in the end is incontrovertibly a flight towards certainty from ignorance. At the same time, Kingsolver leads her discovery towards a new perception on how people arrive at their belief system, and actual truths about the world through fiction. Flight Behaviour, in the words of Mike Hulme, undeniably weaves:
A story about the meeting of Nature and Culture, about how humans are central actors in both of these realms, and about how we are continually creating and re-creating both Nature and Culture. Climate change is not simply a „fact‟ waiting to be discovered, proved or disproved using the tenets and methods of science. Neither is climate change a problem waiting for a solution, any more than the clashes of political ideologies or the disputes between religious beliefs are problems waiting to be solved. [12]
Kingsolver‟s extreme concern for the natural world is quite apparent in her novels where she blows so much life to the natural world which makes one envisage nature as one among the chief characters in her literary creations. Fight Behaviour visualizes one such spectacle at the arrival of Monarch butterflies in the rural Tennessee as: “(The) unearthly beauty… a vision of glory…. A valley of lights, an ethereal wind. (That) it had to mean something…. It was a lake of fire, something far more fierce and wondrous than either of those elements alone. The impossible” [2]. The butterflies in the novel are not just meant for their symbolic presence but also
International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 10, Number 21 (2015) pp 41972-41976
© Research India Publications.
to explicitly expose the human-over-nature dominance, which is different from Kingsolver‟s previous use of animal and bird metaphors like foxes or peacocks in Animal Dreams (1991), and moths or coyotes in Prodigal Summer (2000). Kingsolver catalyses the major conflict of the novel, that is, the lack of ecocentric acuity among humans as she vehemently divides the people as binary oppositions: scientists and non-scientists; rural and urban; individual and community, and those in favour of economy and ecology; religion and science, to explain the environmental crisis inflicted by them on common grounds. For instance, to Dellarobia Turnbow, the protagonist of the novel, the butterflies are an alarm to halt her search for illicit pleasure, and an initiation for her quest to become a „something‟ [2] in the society. The residents of Feathertown, and the pristine Bobby Ogle considers the coming of the butterflies as rebirth of the Lord, or a symbol of resurrection, whereas to some they are the objects of annoyance. To Bear and Hester Turnbow, Dellarobia‟s in-laws the butterflies are a means to allure tourists and eco-sightseers through which they can amass money to pay off their debts. To the media people like Tina Ultner, the butterflies meant nothing but the current talk of town with which they can promote their channel and extend their advertisement. In spite of altering the daily routine of many inhabitants in the fictional Tennessee, the actual significance of the butterflies, a “disastrous manifestation of a changing climate,” remains unrevealed [7]. Such an ignorance of reality leads to no introduction and hence finds no conclusion to the talk about climate change. Ultimately it only leads to the impossibility of analyzing the truth.
Kingsolver chooses climate change in the novel to fit both ecocentric and biocentric aspects for the novel not only concerns the abiotic factors like the changing of weather patterns, or global warming – in the way ecocentrics do – but also the biocentric way of focusing on how climate change manipulates the non-human inhabitants like the Monarch butterflies. In the words of Linda Wagner-Martin: Flight Behaviour details “a human world peopled by flawed and confined figures, a world eventually subordinated to the happenings of the natural world that surrounds them” [10]. It is only to Ovid Byron, a scientist cum lepidopterist, the Monarch butterflies appear like what they actually are – a symbol of global warming. To him “even though (the butterfly) looks really pretty, it might be a problem (that) could actually be terrible” [2]. According to him, the presence of the butterflies is a symbol of the “bizarre alteration of a previously stable pattern…. A continental ecosystem breaking down…. (And) one of God‟s creatures of this world, meeting its End of Days” [2]. Byron proclaims that deforestation is one of the root causes for all the other stated problems. It is also noticeable when Dellarobia says that the mountains in Feathertown were callously bombed causing landslides six times in five months. Bear Turnbow, on the other hand, irresistibly logs and destroy the trees for he considered the forest as “just trees,” and not “gold mines” to be preserved [2] but keeps cursing the failed rain, without bothering to think about the significance of the woods for rain. Apart from that he had also planned to wipe out the overwintering Monarchs that stand in between his logging plan using DDT, which again is another severe issue that has been vastly dealt in Carson‟s Silent Spring. Kingsolver‟s emphasis on the ecocentric or biocentric values through the anthropocentric complications are a way to press on the importance of nature oriented living. Kingsolver almost uses this as a tactic to reach both the rationality and emotionality of human beings, through which she successfully conveys the even harder scientific facts like the surveying of dead Monarchs or the lipid analysis. In addition to that, the specification of laboratory equipments like Mettler Balance, Bench, or the Tissuemizer in the novel not only provides exposure to the people of Feathertown, but also imbibes in them a quest for knowledge, as in Dellarobia and Preston, to help solve a global crisis. Rather than encouraging the imaginary Ansibles like sci-fi, the plethora of real world scientific equipments in the novel typifies the distinctive feature of cli-fi‟s consciousness towards the world where we live in.
As a biologist herself, Kingsolver introduces Ovid Byron as her mouth piece to recount the genuine truths of the real world like global warming, and that, “everything hinges on climate” [2]. According to Byron, deforestation is the radix of global warming. The novel countersigns that even forests are way too “far from adequate” to save the life of Monarchs [2] for climate change has already disturbed the coordination of Earth‟s biological system. The lack of seriousness in conserving the nature can be seen in Bear Turnbow as Cub narrates to Dellarobia that “they‟ve got (the butterflies) figured like supply-side economics. The good Lord supplies the butterflies, and Feathertown gets the economics” [2]. Similar is the case of Tina Ultner, the news reporter, whose inquisitiveness for the „phenomenon‟ [2] as she calls it, is only to promote her channel whereas not to stimulate any awareness about the environmental crisis. To Ovid Byron the so called media that has to blare the truth to the world, veils the reality for its own material gain and popularity. It further poisons the vision of common people like those from Feathertown and its neighbourhood thereby resisting them from the “evidence (that) is staring them in the face” [2]. The AGW theory (Anthropogenic Global Warming) substantiates Byron‟s remark that the raise of carbon dioxide absorption level in the atmosphere effectuated by humans is one paramount basis for global warming that leads to the destruction of resources as well as the extinction of humankind itself. Margaret Atwood for instance in It’s Not Climate Change – It’s Everything Change (2015) voices out a similar view of resource depletion on Earth. Envisioning a future Earth without oil, Atwood discloses not just the importance of resources but also the prognostic imbalance on earth and its inhabitants due to climate change. Atwood poses a warning of how climate change contributes to global disasters in unpredictable ways. Kingsolver on the other hand merges both the scientific and ecological facts in her novel, one after the other, and reinstates Barry Commoner‟s first law of ecology that “everything is connected to everything else,” [11] and to an extreme she provides an alternative perspective that even science is possible through fiction. Apart from Ovid Byron, Kingsolver validly speaks about the need to preserve nature both intrinsically or extrinsically through the voices of Dellarobia, Pete, Hester, Leighton Akins, Juliet, Bobby Ogle to some extent, and Vern Zakas. She also brings in the necessity for scientists and biologists to let people know the
International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 10, Number 21 (2015) pp 41972-41976
© Research India Publications.
truth about their living space. Kingsolver minutely focuses on how even the „pollution‟ caused by a car can kill the butterflies [2] and proves that it is only human beings who would suffer in the end if they wreck nature. The evidence is rightly explicated in the end of the novel when the totally clueless Dellarobia observe the exodus of Monarchs as she struggles to survive on a hill top during the flood which has already caused immense damage to the inhabitants and properties of Feathertown. Deborah Lilley, rightly points out, that “the novel moves away from the abstractions of apocalypse and (progresses) toward the challenges of interpretation and reception posed by environmental crisis” [5]. For example, late in the novel, Dellarobia recounts the number of Monarchs: “Orange clouds of the undecided hovered in the air space above them…. She was wary of taking her eyes very far from her footing, but now she did that, lifted her sights straight up to watch them passing overhead…. The numbers astonished her. May be a million” [2]. Having discussed the threats posed by climate change in detail Kingsolver presents the apocalypse not too directly, but only with few references of the flood, which is a “(a) reconfiguration in the context of contemporary environmental conditions” [5]. Humans should be the first to become conscious of the diminishing ecology, if not they might be the last to talk about it. After realizing that there is no use of saving the world that has probably any soul left in it, Dellarobia begins to amend her belief on climate change. She “comprehended the terms of what she saw, (and) couldn‟t turn away from it…. This time she had to see” [2]. Accordingly, she determines to herself to lead her journey of life, ecologically conscious, though extinction is her destiny.
The complexities posed by climate change do not end with the outer world, but also has a considerable part in its depiction in fiction as well. If climate change is a controversial phenomenon in the outer world, it demands the same in fiction too. For example, an author has to draw the complexities of the climatic conditions toward the difficulties in drawing its impact on a character or plot. This wilderness is evidently seen in the characters like Dellarobia, and Ovid Byron where Kingsolver intends to be concrete about the environmental crisis. In order to provide an insight into the exodus Monarch butterflies, Kingsolver brings in the difficulties or challenges in addressing the circumstances through Dellarobia‟s dual vision. One part of Dellarobia admires the Monarchs as a miracle, whereas the other shows her reluctance to accept the seriousness of the ambiance the butterflies has brought. Tom Cohen stresses on this state of flux as the “perpetual cognitive disjunctures that come up against the ecocatastrophic present” [15]. The open end of the novel is Kingsolver‟s way of offering a choice whether to encounter a disaster or to choose flight at last. The novel reinstitutes what Frederick Buell has written about Rachel Carson‟s Silent Spring, that “the world (as of the writing of this sentence and presumably also the reading of it) has not ended; eco-apocalypse hasn‟t happened” [6]. Presenting the dire circumstances of the novel as such, Kingsolver tries to deploy second thoughts to seek an immediate change that needs to be implemented in the real world. Flight Behaviour also propounds an analogous statement given by Al Gore in his 2007 Nobel Lecture at OSLO that “we have the ability to solve this crisis and avoid the worst – though not all – of its consequences, if we act boldly, decisively and quickly” [1].
Ecocriticism, though initially was considered inept for a full fledged investigation of the risks of climate change, it is impossible to investigate climate change without the environmental and socio-cultural relevance that an eco-fiction offers. Science fiction or speculative fiction on the other hand, has already its own history of extensively dealing climate change issues in its works. But the improbable locales in sci-fi or speculative fiction are too fictional to juxtapose the impacts of climate change with the real world. The IPCC or the most recent Rio+20 discussions are mostly like sci-fi‟s delineation of climate change, for its text bound or theoretical goodness is way far to receive likely responses from a common individual. The dawn of cli-fi in a situation like this seems to be a silver lining, for cli-fi, to a considerable extent, has successfully negotiated the contemporary climate change discourses. Flight Behaviour proves this ubiquitous statement for Kingsolver has brought to lime light the real world dangers of climate change like the flood in Angangueo that took toll of many lives in the year 2010, which was also one among the major reasons behind the migration of Monarch Butterflies. Similarly, the sustainability policies drawn in several climate change gatherings can be related to the unwelcomed sustainability oaths instituted by Leighton Akins in the novel. Another instance is the Environment club led by Vern Zakas at the CCC which is identical to a North Carolina based social organization to save the Monarch Butterflies named „Make Way for Monarchs: A Milkweed-Butterfly Recovery Alliance‟. Kingsolver also shatters the prejudice that reign among scientists who fear controversy in publicizing the discourses on climate change with her own fictional scientist Ovid Byron, who unlike the real world scientists does not hesitate to expose the truth about global warming or climate change, even though he too initially feared of being regarded as one of the second rate scientists if he lets people know the truth of what is happening to the Earth. Byron even moves to an extent when he disparagingly tells Dellarobia that he has not the nerve to watch the Monarchs dying because of humans‟ insensitivity. Byron‟s metamorphosis in the novel is quite relatable to Kingsolver‟s, for she too, as a scientist-cum-writer, has successfully emerged out of the box to disclose facts through fiction. Flight Behaviour as a cli-fi, thus fulfills what Richard Kerridge has rightly articulated on the need of “realist novels, with present-day settings, dealing with people‟s emotional responses to the threat of climate change” [14]. Analyzing Flight Behaviour with the dynamics of cli-fi, it is understood that the novel not just probes deep into the ecological concerns of the real world, but also sheds light on the mysterious interplay of the natural world, and humans‟ conflicted hearts. The study also stresses the need for a symbiotic living between human and the non-human world to reinstate the lost equilibrium on earth, and infers that humans only lose if they go against nature. The article offers scope for comparative studies of cli-fi in contemporary fiction and movies. Unlike the recent evolvement of climate change in fiction, cli-fi movies are considered as old as the history of
International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 10, Number 21 (2015) pp 41972-41976
© Research India Publications.
films itself, and hence offer a significant scope for future researches.

[1] A. Dessler and E. A. Parson, „Global climate change: a new type of environmental problem‟, in The Science and Politics of Global Climate Change: A Guide to the Debate. UK: Cambridge University Press, 2010, pp. 1-30.
[2] B. Kingsolver, Flight Behaviour. London: Faber and Faber Ltd, 2012.
[3] C. Glotfelty, „Introduction: Literary Studies in an Age of Environmental Crisis‟, in The Ecocriticism Reader: Landmarks in Literary Ecology, C. Glotfelty and H. Fromm, Ed. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1996, pp. xv-xxxvii.
[4] D. Holmes, „„Cli-fi‟: Could a Literary Genre Help Save the Planet?‟, The Conversation, 2014. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 07-Sep-2015].
[5] D. Lilley, „Editorial: Critical Environments‟, Alluvium, 2014. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 10-Aug-2015].
[6] F. Buell, „Preface: The Decade of Crisis‟, in From Apocalypse to Way of Life: Environmental Crisis in the American Century. New York: Routledge, 2003, pp. viii-xv.
[7] F. Lichtman, „Climate Change Takes Flight in New Novel‟,, 2012. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 07-Sep-2015].
[8] G. Garrard, „Beginnings: Pollution‟, in Ecocriticism, 2nd ed., G. Garrard, Ed. New York: Routledge, 2015, pp. 1-17.
[9] J. Curry, „So Hot Right Now: Has Climate Change Created a New Literary Genre?‟,, 2013. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 12-Sep-2015].
[10] L. Wagner-Martin, „Flight Behavior: Dellarobia‟s Bildungsroman‟, in Barbara Kingsolver’s World: Nature, Art, and the Twenty-First Century. USA: Bloomsbury Publishing, 2014, pp. 1-20.
[11] M. Egan, „When Scientists Disagree‟, in Barry Commoner and the Science of Survival: The Remaking of American Environmentalism. Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 2015, pp. 109-138.
[12] M. Hulme, Why We Disagree about Climate Change: Understanding Controversy, Inaction and Opportunity. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009.
[13] R. Kerridge and N. Sammells, „Acknowledgements‟, in Writing the Environment: Ecocriticism and Literature, R. Kerridge and N. Sammells, Ed. London: Zed Books, 1998, pp. 1-13.
[14] R. Kerridge, „Ecocritical Approaches to Literary Form and Genre: Urgency, Depth, Provisionality, Temporality‟, in The Oxford Handbook of Ecocriticism, G. Garrard, Ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2014, pp. 361-376.
[15] T. Cohen, „Introduction: Murmurations – “Climate Change” and the Defacement of Theory‟, in Telemorphosis: Theory in the Era of Climate Change. Ann Arbor: Open Humanities Press, 2012, pp. 13-42.

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